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--[[
 
LUA MODULE
 
  bit.numberlua - Bitwise operations implemented in pure Lua as numbers,
    with Lua 5.2 'bit32' and (LuaJIT) LuaBitOp 'bit' compatibility interfaces.
 
SYNOPSIS
 
  local bit = require 'bit.numberlua'
  print(bit.band(0xff00ff00, 0x00ff00ff)) --> 0xffffffff
 
  -- Interface providing strong Lua 5.2 'bit32' compatibility
  local bit32 = require 'bit.numberlua'.bit32
  assert(bit32.band(-1) == 0xffffffff)
 
  -- Interface providing strong (LuaJIT) LuaBitOp 'bit' compatibility
  local bit = require 'bit.numberlua'.bit
  assert(bit.tobit(0xffffffff) == -1)
 
DESCRIPTION
 
  This library implements bitwise operations entirely in Lua.
  This module is typically intended if for some reasons you don't want
  to or cannot  install a popular C based bit library like BitOp 'bit' [1]
  (which comes pre-installed with LuaJIT) or 'bit32' (which comes
  pre-installed with Lua 5.2) but want a similar interface.
 
  This modules represents bit arrays as non-negative Lua numbers. [1]
  It can represent 32-bit bit arrays when Lua is compiled
  with lua_Number as double-precision IEEE 754 floating point.
 
  The module is nearly the most efficient it can be but may be a few times
  slower than the C based bit libraries and is orders or magnitude
  slower than LuaJIT bit operations, which compile to native code.  Therefore,
  this library is inferior in performane to the other modules.
 
  The `xor` function in this module is based partly on Roberto Ierusalimschy's
  post in http://lua-users.org/lists/lua-l/2002-09/msg00134.html .
 
  The included BIT.bit32 and BIT.bit sublibraries aims to provide 100%
  compatibility with the Lua 5.2 "bit32" and (LuaJIT) LuaBitOp "bit" library.
  This compatbility is at the cost of some efficiency since inputted
  numbers are normalized and more general forms (e.g. multi-argument
  bitwise operators) are supported.
 
STATUS
 
  WARNING: Not all corner cases have been tested and documented.
  Some attempt was made to make these similar to the Lua 5.2 [2]
  and LuaJit BitOp [3] libraries, but this is not fully tested and there
  are currently some differences.  Addressing these differences may
  be improved in the future but it is not yet fully determined how to
  resolve these differences.
 
  The BIT.bit32 library passes the Lua 5.2 test suite (bitwise.lua)
  http://www.lua.org/tests/5.2/ .  The BIT.bit library passes the LuaBitOp
  test suite (bittest.lua).  However, these have not been tested on
  platforms with Lua compiled with 32-bit integer numbers.
 
API
 
  BIT.tobit(x) --> z
 
    Similar to function in BitOp.
 
  BIT.tohex(x, n)
 
    Similar to function in BitOp.
 
  BIT.band(x, y) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp but requires two arguments.
 
  BIT.bor(x, y) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp but requires two arguments.
 
  BIT.bxor(x, y) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp but requires two arguments.
 
  BIT.bnot(x) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp.
 
  BIT.lshift(x, disp) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 (warning: BitOp uses unsigned lower 5 bits of shift),
 
  BIT.rshift(x, disp) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 (warning: BitOp uses unsigned lower 5 bits of shift),
 
  BIT.extract(x, field [, width]) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2.
 
  BIT.replace(x, v, field, width) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2.
 
  BIT.bswap(x) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2.
 
  BIT.rrotate(x, disp) --> z
  BIT.ror(x, disp) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp.
 
  BIT.lrotate(x, disp) --> z
  BIT.rol(x, disp) --> z
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp.
 
  BIT.arshift
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 and BitOp.
 
  BIT.btest
 
    Similar to function in Lua 5.2 with requires two arguments.
 
  BIT.bit32
 
    This table contains functions that aim to provide 100% compatibility
    with the Lua 5.2 "bit32" library.
 
    bit32.arshift (x, disp) --> z
    bit32.band (...) --> z
    bit32.bnot (x) --> z
    bit32.bor (...) --> z
    bit32.btest (...) --> true | false
    bit32.bxor (...) --> z
    bit32.extract (x, field [, width]) --> z
    bit32.replace (x, v, field [, width]) --> z
    bit32.lrotate (x, disp) --> z
    bit32.lshift (x, disp) --> z
    bit32.rrotate (x, disp) --> z
    bit32.rshift (x, disp) --> z
 
  BIT.bit
 
    This table contains functions that aim to provide 100% compatibility
    with the LuaBitOp "bit" library (from LuaJIT).
 
    bit.tobit(x) --> y
    bit.tohex(x [,n]) --> y
    bit.bnot(x) --> y
    bit.bor(x1 [,x2...]) --> y
    bit.band(x1 [,x2...]) --> y
    bit.bxor(x1 [,x2...]) --> y
    bit.lshift(x, n) --> y
    bit.rshift(x, n) --> y
    bit.arshift(x, n) --> y
    bit.rol(x, n) --> y
    bit.ror(x, n) --> y
    bit.bswap(x) --> y
 
DEPENDENCIES
 
  None (other than Lua 5.1 or 5.2).
 
DOWNLOAD/INSTALLATION
 
  If using LuaRocks:
    luarocks install lua-bit-numberlua
 
  Otherwise, download <https://github.com/davidm/lua-bit-numberlua/zipball/master>.
  Alternately, if using git:
    git clone git://github.com/davidm/lua-bit-numberlua.git
    cd lua-bit-numberlua
  Optionally unpack:
    ./util.mk
  or unpack and install in LuaRocks:
    ./util.mk install
 
REFERENCES
 
  [1] http://lua-users.org/wiki/FloatingPoint
  [2] http://www.lua.org/manual/5.2/
  [3] http://bitop.luajit.org/
 
LICENSE
 
  (c) 2008-2011 David Manura.  Licensed under the same terms as Lua (MIT).
 
  Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
  of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
  in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
  to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
  copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
  furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 
  The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
  all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 
  THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
  IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
  FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
  AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
  LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
  OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
  THE SOFTWARE.
  (end license)
 
--]]
 
local M = {_TYPE='module', _NAME='bit.numberlua', _VERSION='0.3.1.20120131'}
 
local floor = math.floor
 
local MOD = 2^32
local MODM = MOD-1
 
local function memoize(f)
  local mt = {}
  local t = setmetatable({}, mt)
  function mt:__index(k)
    local v = f(k); t[k] = v
    return v
  end
  return t
end
 
local function make_bitop_uncached(t, m)
  local function bitop(a, b)
    local res,p = 0,1
    while a ~= 0 and b ~= 0 do
      local am, bm = a%m, b%m
      res = res + t[am][bm]*p
      a = (a - am) / m
      b = (b - bm) / m
      p = p*m
    end
    res = res + (a+b)*p
    return res
  end
  return bitop
end
 
local function make_bitop(t)
  local op1 = make_bitop_uncached(t,2^1)
  local op2 = memoize(function(a)
    return memoize(function(b)
      return op1(a, b)
    end)
  end)
  return make_bitop_uncached(op2, 2^(t.n or 1))
end
 
-- ok?  probably not if running on a 32-bit int Lua number type platform
function M.tobit(x)
  return x % 2^32
end
 
M.bxor = make_bitop {[0]={[0]=0,[1]=1},[1]={[0]=1,[1]=0}, n=4}
local bxor = M.bxor
 
function M.bnot(a)   return MODM - a end
local bnot = M.bnot
 
function M.band(a,b) return ((a+b) - bxor(a,b))/2 end
local band = M.band
 
function M.bor(a,b)  return MODM - band(MODM - a, MODM - b) end
local bor = M.bor
 
local lshift, rshift -- forward declare
 
function M.rshift(a,disp) -- Lua5.2 insipred
  if disp < 0 then return lshift(a,-disp) end
  return floor(a % 2^32 / 2^disp)
end
rshift = M.rshift
 
function M.lshift(a,disp) -- Lua5.2 inspired
  if disp < 0 then return rshift(a,-disp) end
  return (a * 2^disp) % 2^32
end
lshift = M.lshift
 
function M.tohex(x, n) -- BitOp style
  n = n or 8
  local up
  if n <= 0 then
    if n == 0 then return '' end
    up = true
    n = - n
  end
  x = band(x, 16^n-1)
  return ('%0'..n..(up and 'X' or 'x')):format(x)
end
local tohex = M.tohex
 
function M.extract(n, field, width) -- Lua5.2 inspired
  width = width or 1
  return band(rshift(n, field), 2^width-1)
end
local extract = M.extract
 
function M.replace(n, v, field, width) -- Lua5.2 inspired
  width = width or 1
  local mask1 = 2^width-1
  v = band(v, mask1) -- required by spec?
  local mask = bnot(lshift(mask1, field))
  return band(n, mask) + lshift(v, field)
end
local replace = M.replace
 
function M.bswap(x)  -- BitOp style
  local a = band(x, 0xff); x = rshift(x, 8)
  local b = band(x, 0xff); x = rshift(x, 8)
  local c = band(x, 0xff); x = rshift(x, 8)
  local d = band(x, 0xff)
  return lshift(lshift(lshift(a, 8) + b, 8) + c, 8) + d
end
local bswap = M.bswap
 
function M.rrotate(x, disp)  -- Lua5.2 inspired
  disp = disp % 32
  local low = band(x, 2^disp-1)
  return rshift(x, disp) + lshift(low, 32-disp)
end
local rrotate = M.rrotate
 
function M.lrotate(x, disp)  -- Lua5.2 inspired
  return rrotate(x, -disp)
end
local lrotate = M.lrotate
 
M.rol = M.lrotate  -- LuaOp inspired
M.ror = M.rrotate  -- LuaOp insipred
 
 
function M.arshift(x, disp) -- Lua5.2 inspired
  local z = rshift(x, disp)
  if x >= 0x80000000 then z = z + lshift(2^disp-1, 32-disp) end
  return z
end
local arshift = M.arshift
 
function M.btest(x, y) -- Lua5.2 inspired
  return band(x, y) ~= 0
end
 
--
-- Start Lua 5.2 "bit32" compat section.
--
 
M.bit32 = {} -- Lua 5.2 'bit32' compatibility
 
 
local function bit32_bnot(x)
  return (-1 - x) % MOD
end
M.bit32.bnot = bit32_bnot
 
local function bit32_bxor(a, b, c, ...)
  local z
  if b then
    a = a % MOD
    b = b % MOD
    z = bxor(a, b)
    if c then
      z = bit32_bxor(z, c, ...)
    end
    return z
  elseif a then
    return a % MOD
  else
    return 0
  end
end
M.bit32.bxor = bit32_bxor
 
local function bit32_band(a, b, c, ...)
  local z
  if b then
    a = a % MOD
    b = b % MOD
    z = ((a+b) - bxor(a,b)) / 2
    if c then
      z = bit32_band(z, c, ...)
    end
    return z
  elseif a then
    return a % MOD
  else
    return MODM
  end
end
M.bit32.band = bit32_band
 
local function bit32_bor(a, b, c, ...)
  local z
  if b then
    a = a % MOD
    b = b % MOD
    z = MODM - band(MODM - a, MODM - b)
    if c then
      z = bit32_bor(z, c, ...)
    end
    return z
  elseif a then
    return a % MOD
  else
    return 0
  end
end
M.bit32.bor = bit32_bor
 
function M.bit32.btest(...)
  return bit32_band(...) ~= 0
end
 
function M.bit32.lrotate(x, disp)
  return lrotate(x % MOD, disp)
end
 
function M.bit32.rrotate(x, disp)
  return rrotate(x % MOD, disp)
end
 
function M.bit32.lshift(x,disp)
  if disp > 31 or disp < -31 then return 0 end
  return lshift(x % MOD, disp)
end
 
function M.bit32.rshift(x,disp)
  if disp > 31 or disp < -31 then return 0 end
  return rshift(x % MOD, disp)
end
 
function M.bit32.arshift(x,disp)
  x = x % MOD
  if disp >= 0 then
    if disp > 31 then
      return (x >= 0x80000000) and MODM or 0
    else
      local z = rshift(x, disp)
      if x >= 0x80000000 then z = z + lshift(2^disp-1, 32-disp) end
      return z
    end
  else
    return lshift(x, -disp)
  end
end
 
function M.bit32.extract(x, field, ...)
  local width = ... or 1
  if field < 0 or field > 31 or width < 0 or field+width > 32 then error 'out of range' end
  x = x % MOD
  return extract(x, field, ...)
end
 
function M.bit32.replace(x, v, field, ...)
  local width = ... or 1
  if field < 0 or field > 31 or width < 0 or field+width > 32 then error 'out of range' end
  x = x % MOD
  v = v % MOD
  return replace(x, v, field, ...)
end
 
 
--
-- Start LuaBitOp "bit" compat section.
--
 
M.bit = {} -- LuaBitOp "bit" compatibility
 
function M.bit.tobit(x)
  x = x % MOD
  if x >= 0x80000000 then x = x - MOD end
  return x
end
local bit_tobit = M.bit.tobit
 
function M.bit.tohex(x, ...)
  return tohex(x % MOD, ...)
end
 
function M.bit.bnot(x)
  return bit_tobit(bnot(x % MOD))
end
 
local function bit_bor(a, b, c, ...)
  if c then
    return bit_bor(bit_bor(a, b), c, ...)
  elseif b then
    return bit_tobit(bor(a % MOD, b % MOD))
  else
    return bit_tobit(a)
  end
end
M.bit.bor = bit_bor
 
local function bit_band(a, b, c, ...)
  if c then
    return bit_band(bit_band(a, b), c, ...)
  elseif b then
    return bit_tobit(band(a % MOD, b % MOD))
  else
    return bit_tobit(a)
  end
end
M.bit.band = bit_band
 
local function bit_bxor(a, b, c, ...)
  if c then
    return bit_bxor(bit_bxor(a, b), c, ...)
  elseif b then
    return bit_tobit(bxor(a % MOD, b % MOD))
  else
    return bit_tobit(a)
  end
end
M.bit.bxor = bit_bxor
 
function M.bit.lshift(x, n)
  return bit_tobit(lshift(x % MOD, n % 32))
end
 
function M.bit.rshift(x, n)
  return bit_tobit(rshift(x % MOD, n % 32))
end
 
function M.bit.arshift(x, n)
  return bit_tobit(arshift(x % MOD, n % 32))
end
 
function M.bit.rol(x, n)
  return bit_tobit(lrotate(x % MOD, n % 32))
end
 
function M.bit.ror(x, n)
  return bit_tobit(rrotate(x % MOD, n % 32))
end
 
function M.bit.bswap(x)
  return bit_tobit(bswap(x % MOD))
end
 
return M

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